Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (TYPE 2)

Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "noninsulin-dependent diabetes- Mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".

Type 2 diabetes begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as “noninsulin-dependent diabetes- Mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”.

What is the difference between Type 1 diabetes and Type 2?

People with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin. People with type 2 diabetes don’t respond to insulin as well as they should and later in the disease often don’t make enough insulin. You can think of this as having a broken key. Both types of diabetes can lead to chronically high blood sugar levels.

Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes
Symptoms usually start in childhood or young adulthood. People often seek medical help, because they are seriously ill from sudden symptoms of high blood sugar. The person may not have symptoms before diagnosis. Usually the disease is discovered in adulthood, but an increasing number of children are being diagnosed with the disease.
Episodes of low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) are common. There are no episodes of low blood sugar level, unless the person is taking insulin or certain diabetes medicines.
It cannot be prevented. It can be prevented or delayed with a healthy lifestyle, including maintaining a healthy weight, eating sensibly, and exercising regularly.

What does diabetes type 2 mean?

Maybe you’ve just been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes. It’s the most common form of diabetes. Type 2 means that your body doesn’t use insulin properly. And while some people can control their blood sugar levels with healthy eating and exercise, others may need medication or insulin to manage it.

Does Type 3 diabetes exist?

But they’re now beginning to talk about another form of diabetes: Type 3 diabetes. This form of diabetes is associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Type 3 diabetes occurs when neurons in the brain become unable to respond to insulin, which is essential for basic tasks, including memory and learning.

 What is Type 4 diabetes?

  It is associated with older age, rather than weight gain.

 What is the most serious type of diabetes?

All patients with type 1 diabetes can also develop a serious metabolic disorder called ketoacidosis when their blood sugars are high and there is not enough insulin in their body. Ketoacidosis can be fatal unless treated as an emergency with hydration and insulin.

Can you reverse Type 2 diabetes?

Although there’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, studies show it’s possible for some people to reverse it. Through diet changes and weight loss, you may be able to reach and hold normal blood sugar levels without medication. This doesn’t mean you’re completely cured. Type 2 diabetes is an ongoing disease.

Can Diabetes Type 2 Be Cured?

There’s no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well and exercising can help manage the disease. If diet and exercise aren’t enough to manage your blood sugar well, you may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

How long can you live with type 2 diabetes?

People with type 1 diabetes, on average, have shorter life expectancy by about 20 years.    People with type 2 diabetes, on average, have shorter life expectancy by about 10 years.

How dangerous is Type 2 Diabetes?

If type 2 diabetes goes untreated, the high blood sugar can affect various cells and organs in the body. Complications include kidney damage, often leading to dialysis, eye damage, which could result in blindness, or an increased risk for heart disease or stroke.

Several factors can increase a person’s risk of developing diabetes. Examples include:

  • Overweight or obesity
  • Unhealthy diet
  • Waist measurement of 31.5 inches or more among women
  • A waist measurement of more than 37 inches among men
  • Low levels of physical activity
  • Raised cholesterol
  • High blood pressure
  • South Asian ethnicity
  • Smoking

Complications of Type 2 Diabetes

The high blood glucose seen in diabetes can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs, leading to a number of potential complications. Some examples of the complications caused by diabetes include the following:

  1. Heart Disease and Stroke: A persistently high blood glucose level can increase the risk of blood vessels becoming narrower and clogged with fatty plaques (atherosclerosis). This can disrupt blood flow to the heart causing angina and in some cases, heart attack. If blood vessels that supply the brain are affected, this can lead to stroke.
  2. Nervous System Damage: Excess glucose in the blood can damage small blood vessels in the nerves causing a tingling sensation or pain in the fingers, toes and limbs. Nerves that lie outside of the central nervous system may also be damaged, which is referred to as peripheral neuropathy. If nerves of the gastrointestinal tract are affected, this may cause vomiting, constipation and diarrhoea.
  3. Diabetic Retinopathy: Damage to the retina may occur if tiny vessels in this layer of tissue become blocked or start to leak. Light then fails to pass through the retina properly which can cause vision loss.
  4. Kidney Disease: Blockage and leakage of vessels in the kidneys can affect kidney function. This usually happens as a result of high blood pressure and blood pressure management is an important part of managing type 2 diabetes.
  5. Foot Ulceration: Nerve damage in the feet can mean small cuts are not felt or treated, which can lead to a foot ulcer developing. This happens to around 10% of people with diabetes.

Prevention, Treatment and Care :

Blood sugar should be regularly monitored so that any problems can be detected and treated early. Treatment involves lifestyle changes such as eating a healthy and balanced diet and regular physical exercise. If lifestyle changes alone are not enough to regulate the blood glucose level, anti-diabetic medication in the form of tablets or injections may be prescribed. In some cases, people who have had type 2 diabetes for many years are eventually prescribed insulin injections

Maintaining a healthy blood glucose level, blood pressure and cholesterol is essential to preventing the complications of type 2 diabetes. Overweight or obese individuals with diabetes often significantly reduce the extent of their symptoms by making adjustments to their lifestyle.


  1. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) & Post Pandrial blood sugar (PPBS).
  2. Glucose Tolerance Test. (GTT) – Gestational diabetes.
  3. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HB1Ac) – status of Long term glycemic control.



BORDERLINE DIABETES TYPE 2 can be treated by diet control and life style modification. Regular exercises is a must to burn extra calories accumulated.


  1. Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others). Generally, metformin is the first medication prescribed for type 2 diabetes.
  2. Sulfonylureas.
  3. Meglitinides.
  4. Thiazolidinediones.
  5. DPP-4 inhibitors.
  6. GLP-1 receptor agonists.
  7. SGLT2 inhibitors.
  8. Insulin.

                                         TYPES OF INSULIN:

Brand Name Generic Name Type Onset Peak Duration
Apidra Insulin Glulisine Rapid Acting 15 minutes 1 hour 2-4 hours
Humalog Insulin Lispro Rapid Acting 15 minutes 1 hour 2-4 hours
NovoLog Insulin Aspart Rapid Acting 15 minutes 1 hour 2-4 hours
Humulin R Human Regular Regular – Short Acting 30 minutes 2-3 hours 3-6 hours
Novolin R Human Regular Regular – Short Acting 30 minutes 2-3 hours 3-6 hours
Humulin N NPH Intermediate Acting 2-4 hours 4-12 hours 12-18 hours
Novolin N NPH Intermediate Acting 2-4 hours 4-12 hours 12-18 hours
Levemir Insulin Detemir Long Acting Several hours No peak  24 hours
Lantus Insulin Glargine Long Acting Several hours No peak 24 hours
Humulin or Novolin 70/30   Combination/Pre-Mixed 30 minutes – 1 hour 3.5 hours 18-24 hours
Novolog Mix 70/30   Combination/Pre-Mixed Less than 15 minutes 1-4 hours Up to 24 hours
Humalog Mix 75/25 or 50/50   Combination/Pre-Mixed Less than 15 minutes 1-6 hours 13-22 hours
Toujeo Insulin Glargine   u-300 Ultra- Long-Acting 6 hours No peak Up to 36 hours
Afrezza   Inhaled 12-15 minutes 30 minutes 1.5-4 hours

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